Method for improving fertilizer utilization rate in greenhouse vegetables

Greenhouse vegetable production is a high-input, high-output production method in a specific environment. Different fertilization methods not only affect the utilization rate of fertilizer, but also affect the economic benefits of production.
I. Common Mistakes in Fertilizer Application (I) Organic Fertilizer Drying Manure and chicken manure have become the main base fertilizers for vegetables in greenhouses. However, for the convenience of application, vegetable farmers often dry manure and chicken manure in the fields and lose water. This practice will cause the fly sister to breed, the nitrogen volatilizes, and the nitrogen nutrients of the fertilizer are lost.
(2) Calcium phosphate is used as the base fertilizer on alkaline soil. Phosphorus is a weakly acidic fertilizer. It is insoluble in water. Under weak acid conditions, it can be gradually converted into water-soluble phosphate, which is absorbed by crop roots and applied on alkaline soil. Can not solve the urgent need for phosphorus in crop seedlings, resulting in physiological phosphorus deficiency.
(3) Topdressing of superphosphate is applied as top dressing Phosphorus has little mobility in the soil, generally 0.5 cm at the application point, and the movement range is between 1-3 cm. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the crop rhizosphere, so it does not play a role in supplementing the phosphorus in the crop.
(4) Immediately after the application of urea, watering urea is a cool ammonia nitrogen fertilizer, which is easily soluble in water. After being applied to the soil, it must be decomposed to be converted into bicarbonate plating. It is absorbed and utilized by the crops, and water is immediately applied after the application. With the loss of water, reduce fertilizer efficiency.
(5) The method of spraying acid-destroying hydrogen with water often causes more fertilizer in the inlet, and the crop growth is difficult to manage, while the shed temperature rises in the afternoon, ammonia gas escapes from the soil, and the lower leaves of the crop are smothered, resulting in Fat damage.
Second, the main method to improve fertilizer efficiency
(1) The organic fertilizer pile is used as the base fertilizer in the late July. According to the manure, 4000 kg of human feces and 100 kg of calcium in the sunny place, 400 kg of crushed wheat straw (ç³ ), mixed and piled into a shape of a scorpion, covered with a worn plastic film. Or use grass puree to stack for 30 days, and then use high-quality organic fertilizer for the base fertilizer.
(2) The concentrated application of superphosphate is applied as the base fertilizer in the 8 cm deep ditch of the transplanting plant, and the soil is covered with 4-5 cm after the phosphorus fertilizer is applied. Then the crop is transplanted in the shallow ditch to shorten the distance between the phosphate fertilizer and the crop root to make up the phosphorus. A small weakness in mobility.
(3) Early application of deep application of urea and root application According to the development stage of the crop, the fertilizer and water demand should be applied in advance and applied in depth, which is 28% higher than that of shallow application. The temperature of the shed is 7 days ahead of 15-20 °C, the shed temperature is 5 days ahead of 26-25 °C, and the 8-10 cm ditch is opened during the application. After the sprinkling, the soil is tightly covered, and the crops with large spacing can be used. Shi. According to the shed temperature, watering for 5-7 days, so that it has enough time in the soil to fully ammoniaize, so as to facilitate the absorption and utilization of crops. 72 in the crop. During the process, the leaf boat can be sprayed once with the 03% urea solution for 7 days, and the commercial solution is overcome by 3,000 times for 2-3 times.
(4) Decomposition of acid-hydrogen and deep hydrogenation is the ideal quick-acting fertilizer for the production of winter-warming greenhouse vegetables. Because it is rarely volatilized at 20 °C, it can be dissociated into plated ions and adsorbed by the soil. Released for root absorption of crops, even under soil temperature conditions of 5 °C, can be converted and decomposed and absorbed by crops. When topdressing, it is 8 to 10 cm away from the roots of the crop and 10 cm deep. After the fertilizer is applied, the soil cover is tight. The utilization rate can be increased by 10%-30%, which is 10% higher than that of shallow application, and 7.8% higher than water application.
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