With the rapid development of the livestock and feed industries, competition in the feed market is becoming increasingly fierce. Soybean phospholipid oil, as an energy raw material that can replace vegetable oil and reduce feed cost, is valued and used by more and more manufacturers and aquaculture households. Soybean phospholipid oil is a product extracted from the oil feet of soybean oil, and the content in soybean is 1.2%-3.2%. It is an ester of glycerin, fatty acid, choline or cholamine, soluble in oils and non-polar solvents. The composition of soybean phospholipid is complex, mainly containing lecithin (about 34.2%), cephalin (about 19.7%), inositol phospholipid (about 16.0%), phosphonate serine (about 15.8%), phosphatidic acid (about 3.6%) and other phospholipids (about 10.7%). The three most important phospholipids are: lecithin, which is composed of glycerin, fatty acid, phosphoric acid and choline; cephalin, which is similar in structure to lecithin, contains aminoethanol instead of choline; inositol phospholipid, It is composed of glycerin, fatty acid, phosphoric acid and inositol.
1 Physicochemical properties of soybean phospholipid oil
Soybean phospholipid oil is a dark yellow or reddish brown, viscous flowing or semi-flowing liquid. Its general composition is (%): soybean oil 35-40, lecithin (pc) 19-21, cephalin (pe) 8-21, phosphatidylinositol (pi) 20-21, phosphatidic acid (pa) 6- 11, other phospholipids 7-11, sterols and other compounds 2-5, carbohydrates 5, water <1 (oil), choline content of 16% of lecithin (pc). Soybean phospholipids are rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
2 physiological functions and biological significance of phospholipid oil
Phospholipid is a relatively complex lipid, a compound of a polyhydric alcohol, a fatty acid, and a phosphate. The phosphate moiety is in turn combined with an alkali-containing nitride such as choline, choline, betaine, and the like. In soybean phospholipids, when the basic nitrogen-containing nitride is choline, the product is soy lecithin. When the basic nitrogen-containing nitride is cholamine, the product is soybean cephalin. The phospholipid primary product isolated in soybean is generally a mixture of various phospholipids. Its molecular structure contains both hydrophilic groups and hydrophobic groups, and has a natural surface active effect. From the nutritional point of view, phospholipids are important biologically active substances, containing a variety of nutrients necessary for living organisms, and are the most ideal combination of various nutrient factors. For soy lecithin, its biological significance is to ensure that soy lecithin, one of the most active complexes of the organism, is supplied. It is rich in choline and promotes the formation of cell protoplasts. It plays an important role in maintaining the normal structure and function of biofilms such as cell membranes and mitochondrial membranes, and maintaining the activity of body fluids and certain enzymes in the body. It can maintain the normal operation of the body's cholesterol, promote the conversion and transportation of fat and lipids in the liver, promote the body's nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism, improve appetite and improve digestion.
3 soybean phospholipid oil in broiler feed application
(1) Improve palatability, relieve stress, shorten the time of delivery, and add 2%-6% of soybean phospholipids to increase the weight gain by about 10%.
(2) When adding phospholipid oil, the body uses body fat, which is decomposed into fatty acids for energy production in the liver. The liver maintains a high concentration of free C18:2 fatty acids, which is beneficial to the re-synthesis of phospholipids, and can also serve as an energy storage pool. Improve energy efficiency so that its actual utilization is higher than other oils. 1kg of phospholipid oil is used for gaining more than 1kg of other fats.
(3) Decompose body fat into fatty acids, which can block the transfer of free fatty acids to abdominal fat tissue in the liver, which can reduce the body fat, increase body weight, reduce the cost, and solve the high rate of abdominal fat in the export chicken. A big problem affecting the slaughter rate.
(4) Phospholipid oil replaces animal fats and oils to overcome the oil, salt, impurities and rancidity of animal oil. Thereby reducing waste, reducing costs, and solving the problem of high prices of other oils and fats.
(5) Reduce animal consumption of methionine and choline and increase protein utilization.
(6) Effectively promote the growth of broilers. 40% of the brain stem weight of the animal body is a phospholipid, and phospholipids have a good effect on the formation of brain cells and the formation of cell differentiation, and enhance the disease resistance of the young chicks. In the early, middle and late stages, phospholipids were added 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, daily gain increased by 7.7%-10.8%, feed remuneration increased by 6.55%, survival rate increased by 1.5%, and economic benefit increased by 2%.
4 soybean phospholipid oil quality standards and appropriate addition amount
The quality standard of phospholipid oil as a feed additive is generally: water < 22%, acetone insoluble > 45%, ether insoluble < 4%, acid value < 5.5. In practical applications, soybean phospholipids should be determined according to the amount of phospholipids originally contained in the feed, the size of the animal, the fat and saturated fatty acid content in the feed, the cost of the feed, and the type and concentration of the phospholipid. In general, the amount of broiler chicken added is preferably 2%.
5 Note on the addition of phospholipid oil in feed
(1) Since the phospholipid oil is strong in viscosity and difficult to stir, the mixture should be expanded when added, and the phospholipid should not be added to a large amount of feed at a time for simple mixing. The phospholipid oil is solidified in winter, and should be heated to 40-50 Â° C to melt and then mix.
(2) Because the phospholipid oil is easily rancid, the feed is best mixed and can be stored for several days in winter.
(3) When adding phospholipid oil, it is necessary to add an antioxidant to the feed, such as adding 0.1% anti-oxyquine to reduce the death caused by the production of ascites in the later stage of the broiler.
(4) The addition of phospholipid oil can rapidly increase body weight, but due to the rapid growth of the body, excessive fat deposition, resulting in excessive cardiac compensation, resulting in increased mortality of the flock. Sodium bicarbonate, a multivitamin, etc. can be added to the feed to reduce the death caused by the addition of oil.
(5) Feeds with phospholipid oil, the feed intake of broilers will decrease due to the increase of energy value. At this time, the content of other nutrients should be increased, especially the content of calcium and vitamin B12, and the amino acid content should be increased to improve protein digestion. Utilization rate.
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