Main ingredients of basalt

The main components of basalt are silica, alumina, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide (and a small amount of potassium oxide, sodium oxide), of which silica content is the highest, accounting for about 45 percent. Fifty or so.

The color of basalt is mostly black, dark brown or dark green. Because of its dense texture, its specific gravity is heavier than ordinary granite, limestone, sandstone and shale.


Basalt can be divided into basalt, alkaline basalt and high alumina basalt according to its composition.


According to its structure, it can be divided into stomata basalt, almond basalt and basalt glass.

Filling mineral

According to its filling minerals, it can be divided into olive basalt and perilla basalt.

Degree of saturation

According to the degree of saturation of SiO2 and the strength of alkali, basalt is divided into two categories: 1 basalt basalt (ie, subalkaline basalt), which is a supersaturated or saturated SiO2 rock. It does not contain olivine and nepheline, and is characterized by orthorhombic pyroxene and pyroxene. Its relationship between SiO2 and total alkali is (Na2O+K2O)/(SiO2-39) with a value of less than 0.37.

2 alkaline basalt, SiO2 is unsaturated, alkali-rich. Containing olivine and accessory feldspar (such as nepheline), zeolite, etc., the latter two minerals are sometimes mixed with alkaline feldspar or potassium feldspar, potassic and longer stones, and are interstitial in the matrix; The lumpite and the metamorphic pyroxene contain only calcium-rich monoclinic pyroxene, that is, diopside ordinary pyroxene. The value of (Na2O+K2O)/(SiO2-39) is greater than 0.37.

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