Principles and application areas of RF technology

[ Pacific Security Network News ]
Radio Frequency (RF) is an abbreviation for Radio Frequency. The more common applications are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), often referred to as inductive electronic chips or proximity cards, proximity cards, contactless cards, electronic tags, electronic bar codes, and the like. The principle is that the scanner transmits a specific frequency of radio wave energy to the receiver for driving the receiver circuit to send the internal code, and the scanner receives the code. The special feature of the receiver is that it is free of battery, contact-free, and free of card, so it is not afraid of dirt, and the chip password is the only one in the world that cannot be copied, with high safety and long life. The application of RFID is very extensive. At present, typical applications include animal wafers, automobile chip alarms, access control, parking lot control, production line automation, and material management. There are two types of RFID tags: active tags and passive tags.
How RF technology works
The basic model of the RFID system is shown in Figure 8.1.
Among them, the electronic tag is also called the radio frequency tag, the transponder, and the data carrier; the reader is also called the reading device, the scanner, the communication device, and the reader/writer (depending on whether the electronic tag can wirelessly rewrite the data). The space (contactless) coupling of the RF signal is realized between the electronic tag and the reader through the coupling component, and in the coupling channel, energy transfer and data exchange are realized according to the timing relationship.
There are two types of coupling of RF signals that occur between the reader and the electronic tag.
(1) Inductive coupling. The transformer model is coupled by a spatial high-frequency alternating magnetic field, based on the law of electromagnetic induction, as shown in the figure:
Figure 8-1
(2) Electromagnetic backscatter coupling: the radar principle model, the electromagnetic wave emitted, hits the target and then reflects, and carries back the target information, based on the spatial propagation law of the electromagnetic wave.
The inductive coupling method is generally suitable for short-range radio frequency identification systems with low and high frequency operation. Typical operating frequencies are: 125kHz, 225kHz, and 13.56MHz. The recognition action distance is less than 1 m, and the typical action distance is 10-20 cm.
Electromagnetic backscatter coupling is generally suitable for long-range radio frequency identification systems operating in ultra-high frequency and microwave. Typical operating frequencies are: 433MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8GHz. The recognition action distance is greater than 1m, and the typical action distance is 3-1m
RF technology application field
1. Logistics: Cargo tracking in the logistics process, automatic information collection, warehousing application, port application, postal service, express delivery
2, retail: real-time statistics of sales data of goods, replenishment, anti-theft
3. Manufacturing: real-time monitoring of production data, quality tracking, automated production
4, clothing industry: automated production, warehousing management, brand management, single product management, channel management
5, medical: medical device management, patient identification, baby anti-theft
6, identification: e-passport, ID card, student ID and other electronic documents.
7. Anti-counterfeiting: Anti-counterfeiting of valuables (smoke, alcohol, medicine), anti-counterfeiting of tickets, etc.
8, asset management: various types of assets (precious or large number of similarities or dangerous goods, etc.)
9, transportation: high-speed no parking, taxi management, bus hub management, railway locomotive identification, etc.
10, food: fruit, vegetables, fresh, food and other freshness management
11. Animal identification: Identification and management of animal husbandry, animal husbandry, pets, etc.
12. Library: Bookstore, library, publishing house, etc.
13, car: manufacturing, anti-theft, positioning, car key
14. Aviation: Manufacturing, passenger tickets, baggage tracking
15. Military: Identification and tracking of ammunition, guns, supplies, personnel, trucks, etc.
16, electricity: intelligent power inspection, smart meter reading and power asset management
17. Other: To be developed...

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