Hazardous wastes are solid, semi-solid, and hazardous substances that are identified as toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, chemically reactive, or infectious, and that pose a hazard to human health and environmental performance. Liquid waste. The larger part of hazardous waste is hazardous chemical waste. With the development of industry, hazardous wastes discharged from industrial production processes are increasing. It is estimated that the worldâ€™s annual production of hazardous waste is 330 million tons. Due to the serious safety and environmental pollution brought about by hazardous waste, hazardous waste in industrialized countries has been called " political waste " . The public is very sensitive to the problem of hazardous wastes and opposes setting up a hazardous waste disposal site in the area where it lives. Waste disposal costs are high and some companies are trying hard to transfer hazardous wastes to industrial underdeveloped countries and regions. How much of this transboundary movement of hazardous waste is difficult to count, but it is clearly increasing. According to the investigation report of Greenpeace, developed countries are transferring hazardous wastes to developing countries at a scale of 50 million tons per year . The transboundary transfer of hazardous wastes to developing countries has a non-negligible harm to the global environment and security. As the importing countries of hazardous wastes generally lack the technical means and economic capabilities for handling and disposal, they will certainly have an impact on the local ecological environment, safety and population health. Under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in March 1989 , the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal was adopted in Basel, Switzerland. The Convention entered into force in May 1992 . Our country is a signatory of the treaty.
1. Overview of hazardous chemical waste treatment and disposal in China
Our country is at a stage of rapid industrialization, bringing with it serious safety and environmental issues. The amount of hazardous wastes, such as dangerous chemicals, has been increasing, and various types of accidents have been triggered. The disposal and disposal of hazardous wastes has become the focus of attention. The level of hazardous chemical waste treatment and disposal in China is relatively low. On the one hand, it is a technical problem. Some hazardous chemicals wastes lack effective treatment methods. On the other hand, they are economic problems. Some hazardous chemicals wastes need to be handled more complicatedly. The process is very costly and it is hard for the business to bear. Some hazardous chemicals production and use companies have accumulated waste in the plant area and have not handled it for years. This poses a great safety risk. Some enterprises have transferred hazardous chemical wastes to other places for storage, especially in remote rural areas. Because local residents lack knowledge of hazardous chemical safety, some will use them for other purposes, such as fuel, etc., to the ecological environment, The health of the population has caused serious damage and even a fire and explosion. Some companies illegally sell dangerous chemical wastes to non-dangerous chemical waste disposal units. They also severely dump dangerous chemical wastes into cultivated land and rivers and lakes, causing serious environmental pollution accidents. For example, in May 2004 the dumping incident Chuzhou City, Anhui hazardous chemical waste. Nanjing Yihua Chemical Co. , Ltd. has illegally reached an agreement with people at the price of 500 yuan per ton of hazardous waste . The trustee dumped a total of 101 barrels of waste in the area along the No. 104 National Highway in Quzhou City when no one was in the middle of the night . The surrounding trees and crops caused a large area withered and endangered humans and animals.
In recent years, the safety of hazardous wastes such as hazardous chemicals and environmental pollution have received the attention of the relevant state agencies and governments of provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, and a series of laws, regulations, regulations, standards and regulations have been promulgated. The relevant major documents include: "Safe Production Law of the People's Republic of China" (Order of Chairman of the People's Republic of China No. 70 ( 2002 )); Regulations on the Administration of Safety of Hazardous Chemicals (Order of the State Council No. 344 ( 2002 )); "Chinese People Environmental Protection Act of the Republic of China (Decree No. 22 ( 1989 ) of the President of the People's Republic of China ); "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes" (Order of the President of the People's Republic of China No. 58 ( 1995 )); "Environmental Protection of Waste Imports Interim Provisions (National Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, General Administration of Customs, State Administration for Industry and Commerce, National Import and Export Commodity Inspection Bureau ( 1996 )); Administrative Measures for the Administration of Hazardous Wastes (State Council of the People's Republic of China order No. 408 (2004)); "Shanghai hazardous waste pollution prevention and control measures" (Shanghai Municipal people's government Decree 53 (1997)) and so on. The issuance of a series of national and local documents regulates the safety management, treatment and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes.
2. Management System of Hazardous Chemical Wastes
Hazardous wastes are solid, semi-solid, and hazardous substances that are identified as toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, chemically reactive, or infectious, and that pose a hazard to human health and environmental performance. Liquid waste. The principle of prevention, centralized control, and management of the entire process, and the principle of prevention and control of pollution are applied to hazardous wastes to promote the reduction, recycling and harmlessness of hazardous wastes. The Shanghai Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau ( hereinafter referred to as the Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau ) implements unified supervision and management of the cityâ€™s hazardous waste pollution prevention and control. Each district and county environmental protection department shall supervise and control the prevention and control of hazardous waste pollution within its jurisdiction. The municipal department in charge of marine administration, customs, military environmental protection departments and public security, transportation, port (Airlines) to exercise supervision department supervision and management according to law, in accordance with their respective responsibilities and mandates pollution prevention supervision and management of hazardous wastes.
According to the requirements of national and local governments, a management system shall be established for the production, collection, transfer, storage, utilization, treatment, disposal, and supervision and management of hazardous wastes. The general requirements for the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes are as follows: :
1 ) Construction projects for storing and disposing of hazardous chemical wastes, whose occupational safety and health and environmental protection facilities must be designed, constructed, put into operation at the same time as the main project, and accepted by local environmental protection bureaus and other relevant departments above the county level. Qualified, before they can be put into use.
2 ) The Department of Safety Technology X is responsible for reporting the production, storage, flow, and disposal of dangerous chemical waste generated by the company to local environmental protection agencies above the county level.
3 ) Dangerous chemicals in various departments and workshops must be designated by special personnel, sent to the enterprise's hazardous chemicals waste disposal department for unified disposal, and must not be abandoned.
4 ) It is forbidden to accumulate combustible hazardous waste in hazardous chemical storage areas.
5 ) The storage, transportation and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes must be carried out in accordance with the characteristics of hazardous chemical wastes. It is forbidden to mix dangerous chemical wastes that are not compatible with storage, transportation, and disposal properties and have not been safely disposed of.
6 ) Transport hazardous chemical waste, must take measures to prevent pollution of the environment.
7 ) A hazardous waste identification mark must be set up for hazardous chemicals waste containers, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous chemical waste.
8 ) Packaging of hazardous chemical wastes should be packaged that is easy to recycle, easy to dispose, or easily absorbed in the environment.
9 ) After the highly toxic drugs have been used up, the packaging left behind must be strictly managed. The use department should register the records and designate the special person to hand in the materials recovery department. The special person is responsible for the management.
10 ) The places, facilities, equipment, containers, packages, and other articles that store, transport, and dispose of hazardous chemical wastes must be used after they have been used for other purposes. They must be decontaminated and disinfected.
11 ) For the transfer of hazardous chemical wastes, the Corporate Safety Technology Division X shall fill out and process the waste transfer joints according to the relevant regulations of the State, and report to the Environmental Protection Bureau above the county level where the dangerous substances are removed and where they are received.
12 ) The Department of Safety Technology X is responsible for formulating emergency measures for accidents occurring during the storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous chemical waste.
13 ) When an accident causes hazardous chemical waste to seriously pollute the environment, the safety and technical department X must immediately take measures to eliminate or mitigate the environmental pollution hazards, and promptly report to the units and residents that may be affected by the pollution, and to the manager and Reports from local environmental protection bureaus and other relevant departments.
3 , hazardous chemicals waste treatment and disposal methods
Generally, there are three major types of hazardous chemical wastes, namely physical treatment, chemical treatment and biological treatment. Landfill methods are generally used for the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. The commonly used hazardous chemical waste treatment methods are listed in Table 1 .
Processing method category
The solid waste is pressurized and the volume is reduced for further processing, disposal and recycling.
Bulk solid waste is crushed for further processing, disposal and recycling.
The components of the solid hazardous waste mixture waste are separated by electromechanical, flotation and other methods for further processing, disposal and recycling.
Dehydration and drying
The moisture in the waste is removed by mechanical methods and heat evaporation for further processing, disposal and recycling.
Distillation and solvent extraction
Distillation or solvent extraction methods are used for the treatment and recycling of liquid hazardous wastes.
Adsorption methods are used to separate hazardous waste from the waste and recycle it.
Membrane separation technology is used to separate hazardous wastes from the waste and recycle them.
Ion exchange is used to separate hazardous waste from the waste and recycle it.
Electrodialysis is used to separate hazardous wastes from their waste and recycle them.
The liquid or liquid-solid mixed hazardous waste is solidified for further processing, disposal and recycling.
Precipitating agent is added to separate the components of hazardous chemical waste liquid, and then disposed or recycled.
Use acid or alkali to neutralize hazardous chemical wastes before disposal or recycling.
Use oxidants to oxidize hazardous chemicals in waste, and then dispose of them or recycle them.
Reducing hazardous chemicals in the waste with reducing agents, and then disposing or recycling.
The hazardous chemicals are incinerated. The commonly used incinerators include: air curtain incinerators, cyclone incinerators, multi-terrace incinerators, fluidized bed incinerators, rotary kiln incinerators, rotary incinerators, electric incinerators, closed pit incinerators.
Pyrolytic methods are used to decompose dangerous chemicals in the waste, and then dispose of them or recycle them.
Activated sludge methods are commonly used, including common activated sludge process, sequencing batch activated sludge process, oxidation ditch technology, adsorption biodegradation and so on.
The information in this article comes from the Internet and was reorganized and edited by China Rescue Equipment Network.
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