In the country, only Inner Mongolia has two separate independent power grids. Mengxi Power Grid operated by Inner Mongolia Power Group is the only independent provincial-level power grid in China. The construction and operation scope includes 8 alliance cities such as Hohhot and Erdos; and the national grid (occupying â€œthe national gridâ€ of the other 4 alliance cities) It is China's largest regional power grid, which spans more than 20 provinces in China and has the right to invest in cross-network channels.
Mengxi has a large number of "women". According to official data from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Government, in 2011, Inner Mongoliaâ€™s total installed capacity of power generation was 65 million kilowatts, ranking third in the country. According to a person in charge of the power plant, the installed capacity of idle each year exceeds 20 million kilowatts. In terms of power generation capacity, Mengxi can send at least 100 billion kWh of electricity every year.
Mengxi Power Grid, which has no cross-network investment authority, can only passively wait for the delivery plan of the State Grid. However, after 8 years of planning, there is no completion of the power delivery channel. The chain reaction brought by it is that â€œwodongâ€ is becoming more and more serious, power plants are losing money, local industry development is limited, and Inner Mongolia is caught in a vicious circle of coal-based industries.
Power plant: Mengxi Office is paying for the machine, the State Grid Office is the printing machine
110 kilometers from Hohhot, there is a small town with a surface that is barren and barren, but contains a lot of coal resources - Xuejiawan Town, Zhungeer Banner, Erdos City.
A local person told China Economic Weekly that such a small town has contributed more than 20 billion yuan of GDP to Erdos since 2008.
The town area is surrounded by rolling hills, and every few kilometers you can see a power plant with a large chimney or a coal mine processing plant. Like other thermal power plants, the quasi-large power plant of Inner Mongolia Guodian Energy Investment Co., Ltd. is like an isolated kingdom lying in the barren hills rich in coal mines. The huge mechanical equipment, towering transformers and spacious office areas make it look quiet. Quietly.
The quasi-large power plant has two 30 kW thermal power units. Starting from the day of May 30, the two units began to operate. In the winter and spring heating season (from October to May of the following year), in order to ensure urban heating, the load on the Internet is given to the thermal power plants around the city, and the quasi-large must have a unit to sleep for half a year.
â€œThe load on the Internet is too small.â€ Director Li Baoming lamented that the thermal power plant with an investment of 2.85 billion yuan was planned according to the utilization rate of 5,500 hours, that is, when the average utilization rate of each unit reached 5,500 hours per year. The power plant can reach breakeven.
However, "Since it was put into production in 2007, there has been no profit." Li Baoming told the China Economic Weekly that in 2007, Mengxi had already appeared in the "power supply" and the Internet load was always up. In the previous year, the power generation time of each unit was only 4,300 hours, and there were only 3,800 hours in a year. Last year, the situation was slightly better, with 4,750 hours of power generation, but the power plant still lost a total of 83.69 million yuan. With the increase in raw coal prices, the loss of power plants reached 46.89 million yuan in the first quarter of this year.
According to Li Baoming, in 2006, 4300 kcal raw coal needed 120 yuan per ton, and now the price has risen to 280 yuan. In addition, in order to encourage the development of renewable energy, the local government of Inner Mongolia gives priority to wind power access to the Internet, which further reduces the load on the thermal power grid, and the losses of thermal power plants are further aggravated.
Around 2003, although the state strictly restricted the approval of power generation companies and no longer approved new thermal power plants, due to the period of lack of electricity, coupled with an optimistic forecast for the industry, Inner Mongolia has also launched five homes. State-owned thermal power plants, quasi-large power plants are one of them. "It has been built. If it is not put into production, it will lose billions of dollars every year. Who will bear this loss?"
According to Li Baoming, most of the traditional thermal power plants in western Inner Mongolia were built seven or eight years ago, and most of them are at a loss.
Contrary to their situation, there are only a hundred kilometers away from here. It is the Datang Tokto Power Generation Company, Huaneng North Shangdu Power Plant, Jingneng Bohai Power Plant, Huaneng Yimin Power Plant, and Inner Mongolia Zhenglan Power Plant. Direct power plants, which belong to the state-owned power plant in Mengxi, directly transmit electricity to North China and Northeast China through independent channels. They earned a lot of money because they had a "good wife."
"If our electricity on the Internet goes up, can we lose money? We are here to tighten our belts according to the national industrial policy, and we lose money every year. They use the coal in Inner Mongolia and the electricity price of the North China Power Grid. Profits are like opening a printing machine." For the unequal treatment in the same area, a power plant owner is somewhat angry.
Delivery: two outlets that are not open for 8 years
Six years ago, the situation of oversupply of electricity in Inner Mongolia had taken shape. Why did the power investment in Inner Mongolia fail to brake the car in time?
Wang Bingjun, deputy director of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission and director of the Energy Development Bureau, pointed out to China Economic Weekly: First, the national policy is not matched, and the state has started the â€œseparation of plant and networkâ€ (separation of power generation and power grid), and the on-grid price (power plant sells) The electricity price of the grid company is bidding online. This policy has led the five major power groups to rapidly shift to Inner Mongolia, where energy is concentrated, and the investment has grown too fast. Second, after the marketization of power companies, there must be a market-oriented grid configuration to output products. However, in fact, the construction of the power grid channel lags behind, which eventually leads to the intensification of â€œdwelling powerâ€. Third, the national resource allocation is not in place. Inner Mongolia should meet the transfer of high-energy-consuming industries. However, the current industrial transfer is still not in place, and the power demand in the autonomous region is insufficient. .
In such a large area of â€‹â€‹power shortages, the surplus electricity in Inner Mongolia should not be sold.
As early as the 1980s, Inner Mongolia formed two lines to North China: the first channel "Fengquan-Wanquan" and the second channel "Khanhai-Wuyuan-Pingan City" four times 500 kV ultra high voltage line. However, 25 years later, there is no additional delivery channel in Mengxi.
Seven or eight years ago, the State Grid launched a cross-regional power transmission channel project in Inner Mongolia, but this project was changed and the time was delayed.
The State Grid has a plan of â€œthree verticals, four horizontals and one ringâ€, including two of the eight leagues in Mengxi. One is the 1000 kV UHV AC line from Ximeng to Shanghai, with 9 stations in the middle, and later changed the terminal station to Nanjing. The fourth channel Mengxi to Weifang also has 4 stations, and later adjusted to Mengxi to Changsha. These two lines are called the third and fourth channels.
In 2008, Inner Mongolia Power Group established the UHV Work Department, and Lin Feng is the deputy director of the UHV Work Department. In the past five years, the work of this five-six-person department is more similar to the â€œsecretaryâ€ work before the implementation of the project. They prepared materials, cooperated with the State Grid to do the feasibility study report of the UHV line (hereinafter referred to as the â€œFeasibility Study Reportâ€), and the planning, land, environmental protection issues related to the communication project with the Mengxi Mengmeng municipal government, but 5 Over the years, the preparation and operation of the UHV project has not finally come to an end.
At the end of 2008, the feasibility study report for the third and fourth channels was completed. In 2009, the project was submitted to the National Development and Reform Commission for review. Until 2010, the changed third channel was awarded the â€œroad stripâ€ of the National Development and Reform Commission. In April 2011, all the documents of the third channel were prepared and submitted to the National Development and Reform Commission, but so far no results.
At the beginning of 2011, the State Grid Corporation set a target: in the second half of 2011, the UHV project from Ximeng to Nanjing will start construction; at the end of 2011, the UHV project from Mengxi to Changsha will be approved. But over the past year, these two goals set last year have not been completed, and the plan is postponed until the second half of this year.
There is no way out, and the "women's electricity" is still intensifying. According to Zhang Fusheng, some of the power plants that were built for the construction of two new delivery channels for the State Grid have now been unable to withstand the hurricane and have been merged into the Mengxi Power Grid.
In the first four months of this year, the electricity delivered to the North China Power Grid by Mengxi Power Grid is gradually decreasing, showing a negative growth.
Obstruction: State Grid's "monopoly forbidden land"
The progress of the channel construction is so slow that the Inner Mongolia local government and the Inner Mongolia Power Group cannot wait.
It is reported that after years of unsuccessful cooperation with the State Grid, two years ago, a UHV DC channel from the Erdos coal-fired power base to Guangdong was being planned. However, according to China Economic Weekly, it is only the intention of the government to understand from Inner Mongolia Power Group. In the past five years, Mengxi Power Grid has reached an agreement with more than a dozen local governments, but to transmit and distribute, it still needs to connect to the national network.
After all, for the planning and construction of the external passage, it can only rely on the planning and promotion of the channel construction by the State Grid. â€œElectric power transmission involves the national grid planning, which is related to the overall situation. Inner Mongolia is an important part of the national grid. The planning of UHV is determined by the state.â€ A government official in charge of energy told China Economic Weekly.
In the long feasibility study report stage, the local government of Inner Mongolia also asked the National Development and Reform Commission, and the national leaders also gave instructions, but the opinions of the two major power grid companies are opposite. Even the most basic problem is the development of â€œsuperâ€. High-voltage DC lines or "Ultra-high voltage AC lines" have not yet reached an agreement.
In this regard, Lin Feng made a metaphor, like a railway line, UHV DC is only two stations of the starting point and the end point, to achieve long-distance power transmission, unable to power on and off along the way; and UHV AC has a lot of crossings Station, can realize power grid integration and power distribution along the way.
A local power researcher told reporters that for the Inner Mongolia Power Group, the UHV DC transmission channel has less investment and can directly transfer the surplus power of Mengxi to the destination; for the State Grid, UHV DC is only completed. A â€œborrowingâ€ channel does not bring much benefit to the power in North China. Therefore, the State Grid is more inclined to develop UHV AC lines.
In addition, â€œthe average on-grid price in Inner Mongolia is 0.309 yuan, while the average on-grid price in Guangdong is 0.51 yuan. We calculated that the cost of sending Mengxiâ€™s electricity to Guangdong Province is 1 cent per kilowatt, plus cost. Our electricity is only 0.409 yuan." An Inner Mongolia power expert told reporters that Mengxi's power transmission to East China, Central China, and South China will inevitably impact the original electricity prices of the State Grid and China Southern Power Grid.
If it is sent out, Mengxi Power Grid is inevitably the most direct beneficiary. According to calculations, if the UHV DC line from Mengxi to Guangdong is completed and is consistent with the existing electricity price in Guangdong, Mengxi will only transfer 50 billion kWh of electricity to the south every year. Even if the electricity is only 5 cents per meter, the Mengxi grid will earn only 5 cents. It can also increase the income of 2.5 billion yuan a year.
Under the current power system, the state does not allow grids to invest across the network. The Electricity Law clearly stipulates that only one power supply business establishment is established in a power supply business area. For channel construction investment, Inner Mongolia Power Group in Mengxi, the southern five provinces belong to China Southern Power Grid, and the rest return to China. Of these three, only Mengxi Power Grid has no right to invest across the Internet.
Zhang Fusheng admits that Hunan, Guangdong, Shanghai, Shandong and other southern power grids have sufficient strength and urgent desire to invest across the network. This requires the state to make changes in the single investment system of the power grid to form a competitive pattern.
Breakthrough: Is it a joint venture or overseas?
In April 2012, the Shaanxi Provincial Local Electric Power Company (hereinafter referred to as â€œShaanxi Geoelectric Powerâ€) and the Shaanxi Electric Power Company of the State Grid in Shaanxi Province, the incident occurred in the Shaanxi Power Companyâ€™s 220 kV grid. Mengxi Power Grid.
According to a local person familiar with the matter, Shaanxi Geoelectric Power Co., Ltd. was able to win the Shaanxi Nonferrous Metals Yulin New Material Circular Economy Industrial Park project, which was previously in cooperation with Shaanxi Electric Power Company, because the project was not approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. The cooperation between the project and the geoelectric power means that the National Development and Reform Commission has been bypassed, and the local government has also acquiesced in this project.
Mengxi Power Grid took advantage of Shaanxi Geoelectric Power, and Shaanxi Electric Power Company of State Grid was naturally dissatisfied. A media reporter who has been paying attention to this matter for a long time said that Shaanxi Electric Power Company has always hoped to swallow the local power grid with weak potential. An official of the Shaanxi Provincial Government's energy department revealed that a few years ago, it was the State Grid itself that was left to the local power grid because of the remote and historical burden of the rural network in north Shaanxi.
In the few years that the State Grid has let go, Shaanxi geoelectricity has developed rapidly. In addition to improving the county power grid, Shaanxi Geopower broke through the 110 kV high-voltage line for the first time and entered the 220 kV high-voltage power grid. This has entered the market of the State Grid, and the contradiction between the two sides is inevitable.
In addition to bypassing the national network and the local power grid, Mengxi Power Grid intends to break through the border and transfer power to neighboring Mongolia. At present, Mengxi Power Grid has three outbound channels to supply power to Mongolia, but the power supply capacity is low.
According to Zhang Fusheng, this year, Inner Mongolia will start the Ganqi Maodu port to supply electricity to the Mongolian copper mine. In addition, Mengxi Power Grid will use the voltage level of 220,000 kV through 6 channels including Alashanâ€™s Ceke Port, Bayannaoer Middle and Late Port, Baotouâ€™s Mandula Port, Xilinhotâ€™s Erlianhaote Port and Zhuâ€™en Port. Transmission to southern Mongolia.
The overseas expansion of the external transmission channel, Zhang Fusheng said, first, solved the strategic channel for the development of Inner Mongolia's power channel to the north; second, supported the development of Mongolia's economy; and third, accelerated the coal, electricity, oil, etc. in southern Mongolia. The use of external resources. â€œAlthough it crosses national borders, it is easier than crossing another grid company that belongs to the same state-owned enterprise.â€
Domestic sales: not so simple
Another way is to sell domestically and cultivate Inner Mongolia's own digestion ability.
Two years ago, Inner Mongolia began to launch 22 industrial parks. Among them, several deep-processing resource utilization industrial parks were arranged along border ports such as Erlianhot, Mandula and Ceke.
In 2010, Wang Bingjun began to shift his attention from the inability to control the transfer of electricity to the local industry for the digestion of energy. Wang Bingjun told China Economic Weekly that the south lacks electricity, but Inner Mongolia's power resources are abundant, thus accelerating industrial transfer.
According to the plan, Inner Mongolia will form seven industrial chains based on coal power as the industry, namely metallurgy, photovoltaic manufacturing, new rare earth materials, coal chemicals, chemicals and fluorine chemicals, building ceramics and cloud computing.
Wang Bingjun said that the sale of one ton of coal can be sold for up to three or four hundred yuan, and coal becomes about four times as much as electricity, but electricity has become an average of 20 times. In 2011, the electricity consumption increase in Inner Mongolia was about 17%. At present, Inner Mongolia's annual electricity consumption base is 180 billion kWh. If it increases by 10% per year, then the annual electricity consumption will increase by 18 billion kWh, which will consume 3 million kW of installed capacity. If the current installed capacity of 5 million kilowatts, the surplus installed capacity can be digested within two years.
However, domestic sales have encountered new problems. In the Zhungeer Dalu Industrial Park near the quasi-large power plant, four aluminum oxide projects will be launched, and the next step will be to use the fly ash from the coal power plant in the Zhungeer area.
Fly ash is fine ash collected from the flue gas after coal combustion. If there is fly ash, it must burn coal; as long as coal is burned, it will generate electricity; as long as power is generated, it must have an external delivery channel; When generating electricity, there is no fly ash; without fly ash, deep processing will not work. In this way, the problem returned to the original point and hit a dead knot.
A person in charge told the reporter that the project such as aluminum oxide consumes a small amount of electricity, and the power plant is running. Most of the electricity needs to be sent out.
How to attract the transfer of high-energy industries in the field to Inner Mongolia has become the key to the development of Inner Mongolia's industry. However, due to the overcapacity of some projects such as electrolytic aluminum in the country in recent years, the state has begun to tighten the approval for new construction. Even if the transfer is successful, it is still unknown whether it can immediately solve the "power". Â
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