â–¡ Haodan MOOC (MassiveOpenOnlineCourse), which is a â€œlarge-scale online open courseâ€, has become a hot spot on the Internet at home and abroad because of its large-scale and openness. The informal remarks and formal academic research related to it have come to the fore. An in-depth analysis of MOOC practices and research is both a need for the real development of MOOCs and a requirement for their sustainable development. The development of domestic MOOCs has become a trend of the original, and the highlights and shortcomings coexist in relevant practice. Correspondingly, the domestic academic research on MOOC has both bright spots and a large room for improvement. In this paper, in the context of the global MOOC development boom, we refer to the foreign MOOC related research results, sort out the domestic MOOC-related academic and non-academic, comprehensive domestic MOOC-related academic conferences, and explore the characteristics of domestic MOOC research and issues worthy of attention.
I. Overview MOOC, MassiveOpenOnlineCourse, can be literally translated as "large-scale online open course." Some people in China have also translated MOOC into "Mu Class." It is generally believed that the MOOC curriculum model originated from an open course based on the Internet, dating back to 2007, when Professor David Wiley of the University of Utah launched a network open course called IntrotoOpenEducation (INST7150), around the world. Users can share course resources and participate in the course. Then, in January 2008, Professor AlecCouros of the University of Regina in Canada opened an online open course, MediaandOpenEducation (ECI 831), and invited many experts from around the world to participate remotely. Teaching. These two open courses laid the foundation for the birth of MOOC, a new curriculum model, from the ideological and technical aspects. It can be said to be the predecessor of MOOC. (Li Qing, Wang Tao, 2012) MOOC is the 2008 Dave Comil ( DaveCormier) and Bryan Alexander's acronym for the first letter of the English name MassiveOpenOnlineCourses, a new type of large-scale open online course offered by GeorgeSiemens and Stephen Downes at the University of Manitoba. Named "China Unicom and Company The â€œKnowledge Knowledgeâ€ course attracted 25 students and 2,300 free online students (ohnDaniel, 2012). â€œA participant is distributed throughout the country, and course materials are distributed throughout the network. The course "and the course is open, the larger it is, the better it will work." It links learners and teachers scattered around the world through discussion and communication based on themes or issues. 2012 On September 20th, the definition evolved into: "MOOC is an online course for open access and large-scale participation." MOOC is both a new development in the field of distance education and an open educational concept advocated by open educational resources. New development. Although the design of MOOC is somewhat similar to the traditional curriculum, its typical feature is that it does not provide credits. However, for related certification, it can also be strictly said that MOOC includes the large-scale open network course of connectedism cMOOC and the use of well-known American universities. The behavioral approach developed by xMOOC is very different in teaching concepts. In general, xMOOC is common in the media. The differences include: The cMOOC model emphasizes creativity, creativity, autonomy, and social network learning; the xMOOC model emphasizes traditional learning methods such as video presentations, quizzes, tests, etc. In other words, cMOOC focuses on knowledge creation and generation, while xMOOC focuses on knowledge repetition (ohnDaniel, 2012). In practice, cMOOC is a single course, organized and implemented by teachers. The official institutions of the university do not participate, and the open courses of the xMOOC model basically run in the form of an open course project website. Each website will have dozens of Hundreds of courses. In terms of organization, xMOOC adopts a corporatized operation form, has external capital investment, has commercialization potential, and cooperates with many well-known universities. These larger MOOC course sites provide open learning resources and learning tools for more learners, and they are well-organized and process-oriented, regardless of size, benefit, or social impact (Li Qing et al., 2013). In the following analysis, cMOOC and xMOOC are not strictly distinguished. Li Qing and Wang Tao (2012) believe that from the course itself, MOOC has the following characteristics: a relatively complete curriculum structure (course objectives, coordinators, topics) , time schedule, homework, etc.), which is not discussed in the general network theme; it is a form of education in which resources and information are open and all spread through the Internet, without restrictions on the number of people, time, and location; A mega-course that uses a huge amount of resources; learners can use a variety of tools or platforms to participate in learning according to their own habits and preferences. The learning environment is open and personalized; it is a generative course that provides only a small amount of pre-preparation at the beginning of the course. Learning materials, and learners are more likely to gain knowledge by discussing, organizing, thinking, and communicating on topics in a particular field.
Downes summarizes the four basic principles of MOOC (Downes, 2008): convergence, mixing, diversion, and promotion.
He believes that these principles also reflect the characteristics of the MOOC. Panchenko L.F. (2013) based on his own experience and analysis of related research, he believes that MOOC has 13 advantages for teachers: free participation; support for on-the-job training; let learners reach the teaching style of well-known universities; Methodology; experiencing distance learning from a student perspective; experiencing forum discussions; experiencing peer evaluation; expanding vision and knowledge about teaching methodology; increasing opportunities for teaching courses at universities with MOOC; development of intercultural competence; English listening, reading and writing skills Improve; establish new professional connections; reflect on one's own educational activities from a new perspective.
The five main elements are: teachers, learners, themes, learning materials, etc., 2013). Li Qing et al. (2012) observed and analyzed ten MOOC courses, summed up the general operating mode of MOOC, and extracted the components of MOOC: the elements of the object (platform and tools, course information, learning activities) and human factors. (course teacher, learner, course coordinator). As can be seen from these studies, the analysis of the components of MOOC has included more "human" factors. It can be seen that the focus of research on MOOC began to shift from a large scale, a wide range, and a rich resource to a more substantive level of teaching and learning. The elements related to teaching and the elements related to "people" began to cause research. The attention of the person.
According to the 2013 Horizon Report (Higher Education Edition), the implementation of different philosophical orientations, but the early and contemporary MOOCs have one thing in common: they use a large number of emerging pedagogy and tools, including mixed learning, open educational resources and Crowd-sourced interaction, etc. These techniques for supporting MOOC workflows vary in different models, but the common thing is that these tools are easy to use and easy to use. MOOC uses WikiSpaces, YouTube, GoogleHangouts and other cloud services to facilitate discussion, create and share videos and participate in all other activities, which has become an essential element of teaching and learning in modern online learning environments. .
To understand the technical characteristics of the MOOC course, Li Qing et al. (2012) investigated the main tools/columns used in the MOOC course and counted the scale of their use. The study showed that all MOOC courses use a variety of technology platforms to provide course resources and organize learning interactions; each course uses 4 to 11 tools, with an average of 7.5 tools; virtual classroom tools and Twitter are MOOC courses. The most used tools, followed by wikis and blogging tools. Li Qing et al. (2012) saw that MOOC courses often use multiple tools of the same function or the same content in the implementation process. For example, in the LAK11 course, different groups of learners use the Moodle Forum and the Google Discussion Group respectively. The topic is discussed.
Second, the current MOOC-related analysis and non-academic analysis related to MOOC So far, compared with other areas related to MOOC or similar, academic research on MOOC system is still very few, a large number of analysis and reflection on MOOC phenomenon In traditional media news reports or non-traditional media news reports, blogs, Weibo, and so on. For these non-academic searches and analyses, a large amount of information about the practice and research of MOOCs should be available.
In the traditional media, China Education News reported in February 2013 that in the face of the impact of MOOC, it is necessary for Chinese educators to think about the question: Are we still educating in the direction of the industrial structure of the sunset, 2013? In April, the China Education Network focused on a group of articles related to MOOC. Among them, Jiao Jianli wrote that MOOC will have an important and far-reaching impact on the informatization, internationalization and democratization of higher education. He gave a lecture to Chinese universities. Five recommendations: Integrate open educational resources and MOOCs into university development strategies; help teachers and students master online participatory learning methods; actively explore and deepen innovation in university curriculum and teaching models; and guide teachers to introduce open educational resources into their own classrooms In teaching; strengthen research, plan and explore MC in a step-by-step manner. Li Zhimin, director of the Science and Technology Development Center of the Ministry of Education, accepts the exhibition, and the government should formulate rules as soon as possible; the development of MC will be a big impact on higher education institutions. Jiang Dongxing, chairman of the Higher Education Association Education Information Branch, believes that it is far from saying that MC is the future of education. MC is an important component of future education, but it will not become mainstream. Wang Qiong, Digital Learning Research Center of Peking University, discussed the issue of intellectual property protection that cannot be bypassed in the development of MC. In addition to copyright issues, Li Xiaoming, a professor at the School of Computer Science at Peking University, believes that the three aspects of reputation issues, teaching models, and curriculum settings affect MC's progress. The Peopleâ€™s Daily Report was published in June 2013 as â€œthe online open course storm hitâ€ and â€œChinese universities have taken stepsâ€. In June 2013, Beijing Education published a speech by Zhao Guodong of the Peking University School of Education and said that the emergence of MC and others would not lead to the demise of traditional universities. Guangming News reported in June 2013 that â€œlarge-scale online open courses rushed to online universities: flooding beasts or 'Ji Shi Xian Dan, think MC is attackingâ€ is related to the survival of the universityâ€; in October of the same year, the newspaper published the edX chairman Anan Professor Te Agarwal's visit. Xinhua Daily Telegraph and Economic News reported in July 2013 that MC has become the trend of online education and will impact or change traditional universities. Computer fans also published in July 2013. Regarding the special planning of MC, I am optimistic about the development prospects of MC. Wenhui Daily also paid attention to the dynamics of cooperation and sharing of MC among domestic universities on July 10, 2013. Yu Shengquan of Beijing Normal University and Yu Junqing of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, etc. in August 2013 The China Education Network has expressed different views on the impact of MC on colleges and universities. The computer world reported in August 2013 that: Do not rely too much on online education represented by MC, because the excessive use of online education in large public universities may also Endanger the students." Network World September 16, 2013, said MC opened a new model of online education in the Internet era. "Technology Daily reported on October 15, 2013, the world's first Chinese version of the "Mu Class" platform open online course, asked whether MC can Skid China's higher education reform.
In terms of online media, China Youth Network, People's Network, China Education and Research Computer Network, NetEase and many other online media can see a lot of information and reports about MC. Sina blog, blog bus and other websites, Jiao Jianli, etc. I have published a large number of introductions and comments on MC. The Chinese website of Mutu.com and Superstars has a variety of Chinese MCs on the theme. In addition to many MCs, the shells also bring together a large group of courses on MC. Interested people with local interests, localization, and future development.
(II) Academic Analysis Related to MOOC Before retrieving MC-related Chinese academics, we used MC and â€œMassivepenOnlineCourse for English academic search to obtain English academics on MC as an analysis of Chinese.
In terms of English as a whole, the total number of MCs is not too large: 5,680 in English for MC and 39,200 in English for Massive pennlineCourse; in contrast, e -learning is 314,000 in English. Analysis of the results of Googlescholar search reveals that researchers who focus on MC are mainly from universities. From the publication time of academic results, a large number of quality academic articles appeared in 2012 and 2013: 1,220 in English for MC was produced in 2012 or later; 20 in English for â€œMassivepenOnlineCourseâ€ 700 articles were produced in 2012 or later. From the research topic, most of the articles ranked in Googlescholar search results are focused on MC design, development, technical routes, etc., and also based on different technologies. A comparative study of the form of MC; although there are not many concerns about learners, interactions, and learning evaluations in MC, there have been many in-depth thoughts on these aspects.
Or the theme of â€œMu Classâ€ was searched in CNKI's China Academic Journals Network Publishing Library. A total of 19 Chinese academic papers related to MCs published between 2010 and October 2013 were obtained. In terms of quantity alone, Chinese language is far less than English academics, which is also in line with the development of MC related practice at home and abroad. The following analysis of Chinese academics mainly focuses on these 19 articles.
1. Chinese academic source journals According to statistics, published MC related Chinese academic journals Table 1 MOOC related Chinese academic journals Journals Titles Number of articles (Article) Distance Education Magazine 4 Modern Distance Education Research 3 Open Education Research 2 China Distance Education 1 Jiangsu Higher Education 1Modern Intelligence 1 Technology Innovation Guide 1 Technology and Industry 1 Computer Engineering and Application 1 Computer Application 1 Course Education Research 1 Software Guide 1 Heilongjiang Education: Higher Education Research and Evaluation 12. Chinese Academic Authors Sources and Their Distribution Table 2 MOOC Related Chinese Academics A total of 13 publications were published each year. Except for software guides, modern intelligence, computer engineering and applications, computer applications, science and technology innovation, and technology and industry, which are journals related to science and technology, other journals belong to the field of education. The top three of the papers are academic journals in the field of distance education. The three articles published in the Journal of Modern Distance Education Research are a set of articles published in the third issue of 2013. The number of journals and articles published in MOOC-related Chinese academics can be found in Table 1. Analysis of author sources of MOOC-related Chinese. It can be found that 17 authors are from ordinary universities, and 2 authors are from the TV University (Central Radio and Television University and Sichuan). Radio and Television University). Among the colleges and universities, the number of MOOCs is more at East China Normal University (3) and National Defense Science and Technology University (2).
3. Chinese academic annual publication statistics According to the publication year, MOOC-related Chinese academics appeared more in 2013. There were very few Chinese scholarships published before, and some years (such as 2011) even published before and after 0.2012. Except for a few individual articles, they are concentrated on the technical level and have limited academic depth. The earliest appeared: the 2009 large-scale online course non-dedicated resource forecasting and query scheduling published in computer engineering and application. The first author is from Xinjiang University (Hou Yong et al., 2009). The distribution of MOOC-related Chinese academic years is shown in Table 2. 4. The distribution and characteristics of related topics from the high-frequency of academic research. With the relevant analysis of CNKI, we can see that the high frequency (frequency is greater than 1) of Chinese academics related to MOOC. For: MOOC (6), large-scale open online courses (2), higher education (2), open courses (2), educational information (2), open educational resources (3), the characteristics of the theme distribution of the curriculum model: It is obviously and inevitable related to MOOC itself; Unicomism is an important theoretical basis of current MOOC and an important feature embodied in the current development of MOOC; open education (or distance education), collaborative learning, online learning, etc. The emergence and development of MOOC is closely related; adaptive query scheduling and so on reflect the development of MOOC technology; low frequency and low frequency, which also reflects the monotonous and quantitative shortcomings of related practice research.
III. Current status of domestic MOOC-related academic research The number of domestic MOOC-related practices is increasing year by year, and the academic seminars on MOOC are also rich and varied. From October 27th to 28th, 2012, at the inaugural meeting and academic seminar of the China Education Development Strategy Association Reform and Development Planning Committee, the participating scholars held a heated discussion around the MOOC. On April 13, 2013, at the 4th National Digital Campus Construction and Innovation Development Summit Forum, there were discussions on MOOCs. At the Ninth National Education Technology Doctoral Student Forum held from June 22nd to 23rd of the same year, Professor Huang Ronghuai of Beijing Normal University made a report entitled â€œMOOC Help Reconstruction Learning Methodâ€, saying: In the MOOC promotion process The uniqueness, mobility, professionalism, and necessity of resources to be shared in the sharing analysis; the research on MOOC can be based on the scope of application, the principles of teaching methods, the operational mechanism, and the possible political, cultural, and economic The influence and other aspects began. Professor Wang Qiong of Peking University shared the teaching principles behind the excellent MOOC in the same forum. From June 27 to 28, 2013, MOOC was also a participant at the Innovation and Innovation Forum hosted by the Ministry of Education Science and Technology Development Center. At the 9th of July 2013, at the International Forum on Online Education Development held by Shanghai Jiaotong University, Assistant Minister of Education Lin Yanqing, President of China Higher Education Society Zhen Zhenyuan, Party Secretary of Shanghai Jiaotong University Ma Dexiu, President of Shanghai Jiaotong University Zhang Jie Li Zhimin, director of the Science and Technology Development Center of the Ministry of Education, is optimistic and positive about the development status and prospects of MOOC in China. Attitude. On October 13, 2013, China Distance Education Magazine and Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Education Technology Research jointly held the "China Distance Education Young Scholars Forum" with the theme of M00C: Subversion and Innovation. Young scholars from domestic universities discussed The development history, essential characteristics, future influence and localization of MOOC. From October 16th to 18th, 2013, the 25th World Congress of the International Open and Distance Education Council (ICDE) with the theme of â€œInternational Open, Flexible, Distance Learning New Strategyâ€, from Athabasca University, Canada Professor Rrit McGreal, President of Frits Pennekoek, UNESCO Chair of Open Education Resources, and osepAPlanell, Open University of Catalonia, Spain, discussed different understandings of M00C. At the sub-meeting, researchers from home and abroad introduced their research progress around the potential of MOOC in distance education in Africa, case-based MOOC analysis and MOOC-related technology applications. After the ICDE conference, on October 20th, representatives of the ICDE Executive Committee and relevant international conferences moved to the China National Open University Headquarters to hold a MOOCs think tank seminar as a continuation of the 25th World Congress of ICDE. Discussion: Fred Mulder, Chair of the UNESCO Open Education Resource and Open Education Coordinator, Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, Chairman of the European E-Learning Quality Foundation and MOOCs Quality Project, and Alan Bruce, Vice President of the European Distance Education and E-learning Network, etc. The regional status, importance, influence and how to use MOOCs in higher education to make keynote speeches, Zhang Shaogang, deputy secretary of the National Open University of China, gave a keynote speech titled MOOCs: How to Open Universities. The China Education Development Strategy Association, China Education International Exchange Association, Peking University, National Open University and Beijing Open University jointly held the â€œInternational Forum on Information Technology Development and Education Reformâ€ on November 3, 2013. The topics related to MOOC also received attention. The leaders of Coursera and EdX team shared the forum respectively.
Research and practice are inseparable, and their characteristics and problems are similar. In general, MOOC research is closely following the footsteps of MOOC practice, and both practice and research are on the rise. They have already harvested rich results and have shown us the rich possibilities for further development, but they also exist. Insufficient, of course, these shortcomings also mean upside. Based on the above analysis, at least three aspects of MOOC ElectronicPublishingE related research are worthy of attention.
First, the overall number of studies is small. From the perspective of the number of Chinese collected in this study, and compared with the number of academic papers related to MOOC at home and abroad, there is still much room for improvement in domestic MOOC research.
Second, the depth and breadth of MOOC-related research are insufficient, and there is a lack of large-scale and comprehensive research. This feature is reflected in the MOOC related research at home and abroad. The existing research on MOOC is usually carried out in some aspects. This feature also reflects to some extent the lack of accumulation of relevant practices and the lack of depth and breadth to constrain the depth of the research.
Third, practitioners and researchers have concentrated on colleges and universities from the very beginning, which guarantees the academic standards of research results, making relevant research more standardized and rigorous from the beginning. With the addition of more distance education institutions and enterprises, it will broaden the horizons of relevant research and practice, but researchers in universities will also be the main research force.
In general, the distribution of published academic topics can reflect the distribution of current relevant academic research topics to some extent. Therefore, we will start from the analysis and explore the status of domestic MOOC-related academic research.
Summarizing the research topics of MOOC-related Chinese, the current domestic research on MOOC is mainly concentrated (but not limited to) in the following aspects.
(II) MOOC's provision platform and technical environment The research on MOOC providing platform and technical environment is the earliest and most common research topic in domestic MOOC related research. Hou Yong et al. (2009) explored the introduction of non-dedicated resource usage strategies into MOOCs, thereby reducing resource leasing overall. Hou Yong et al. (2010) also studied how to use semi-supervised EM algorithm based on attribute selection integration in a limited service resource environment to provide satisfactory query processing for large-scale query requests in MOOC. Li Hua et al. (2013) proposed to construct a framework of MOOC learning management system based on LTSA model, and believed that there are many advantages in combining learning management system with MOOC. Wu Shuping (2013) based on the systematic analysis of MOOC, taking the cloud learning environment as the starting point, expounding the impact of MOOC on cloud learning environment construction, and proposed the cloud learning environment framework under MOOC mode. Wu Weining (2013) selected Coursera as a case, and analyzed it from the perspectives of technology, concept, and resource co-construction mechanism. Li Minghua (2013) and Wang Ying (2013) compared the characteristics of several mainstream platforms provided by MOOC from their respective research perspectives. These studies focus on the MOOC delivery platform and related technical environment, and account for a large proportion of all research, which reflects that MOOC related research still stays at the level of technology and its application. However, as a phenomenon in the field of education and even in the social field, MOOC needs more attention from the level of teaching and learning. In foreign countries, more attention is paid to the relationship between technology in MOOC and learners or learning evaluation. For example, Dorsa Saadigh et al. (2012) focus on the automation of problem generation, solution generation and scoring in MOOC; IN- In his paper, GEDEWAARD (2013) compared the impact of the adoption of mobile technology on the interaction of students in MOOC.
Since 2012, there has been a focus on teaching and learning in the domestic research on MOOC. Especially in 2013, research around teaching and learning has become a very important part of MOOC related research. Fan Wenqiang (2012) analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of MOOC from the perspective of learning support, and proposed that the key point of learning support in MOOC is to maintain the balance between self-organization and organization. Li Minghua (2013) compared the characteristics of three MOOC teaching modes (complete network teaching mode, online course + student self-service face-to-face interaction mode, online course + local university professor face-to-face deep participation in teaching mode), and believes that there will be more in the future. The MOOC-based teaching model. Liu Wei and Chen Ling (2013) believe that the learning that takes place in MOOC belongs to large-scale collaborative learning based on network, and then analyzes its advantages. Wang Ping (2013) compared different teaching modes based on MOOC, and paid attention to learning in MOOC from the perspectives of learning support, learning analysis and learning ecology. Zhang Zhenhong et al. (2013) believe that the rise of MOOC reflects the transformation of education concepts from classroom to school and from teaching to learning, and points out that in the future, MOOC will have new developments in learning interaction, learning evaluation, and support for special learning.
Deng Hongzhong et al. (2013) explored the construction of the MOOC curriculum system and the curriculum knowledge system network. Pan Xuefeng et al. (2013) studied the design of online education products including MOOC from the perspective of learner experience. The attention paid to the level of MOOC teaching and learning is not enough in general, and the depth of research has yet to be explored.
There are many researches on teaching and learning related topics in MOOC, especially about the experience and learning evaluation of learners and teachers in MOOC. Compared with the domestic research on teaching and learning in MOOC, this part of the research topic in foreign countries is more detailed and concentrated. For example, SuiFaiohnMak et al (2010) focused on social interaction tools (blogs and forums) in MOOC; Kop et al. (2012) believed that attention should be turned from resources to â€œpeopleâ€ themselves, and that more attention should be paid to learners in MOOCs. Encourage connections between learners and follow-up learners, learners and learners to develop meaningful learning; Stephen P. Balfour (2013) examines the use of machine-based automated composition scoring and What is the difference between real-life peer-reviewed parliaments; Duke University (Yvonne Belanger and essicaThornton, 2013) studied the University's MOOC based on Coursera's focus on student behavior and outcomes, student registration motivation, expectations and experiences, and student completion of the course. Facilitating factors and barriers, as well as the teacher's experience, believe that there are lack of time, lack of curriculum-related background knowledge and skills, and the inability to complete the transition from concept to practice, which hinders students' barriers to completing MOOC; Cathy Sandeen (2013) studied learning in MOOC Evaluation, it is considered that the evaluation of learning in MOOC needs to face various challenges and evaluations.
(IV) MOOC quality monitoring, course certification and credit recognition Domestic research on MOOC quality monitoring is still not much, but in some academic seminars, attention has been paid to the sound of MOOC quality monitoring. Correspondingly, the discussion of MOOC's course certification and credit recognition has also entered the researcher's field of vision. This part of research and practice will have a profound impact on the sustainable development of MOOC. Li Minghua (2013) analyzed the certification of MOOC from the perspective of economics. He saw that the current certification of MOOC is platform-based and informal, but the effect of informal certification is often not bad, which helps people. Look down on the source school of MOOC and turn to the platform of supply, but the credit recognition of MOOC is also facing various pressures. Wang Ying et al. (2013) also saw deficiencies in MOOC quality monitoring and certification, which may pose obstacles to its continued development. Deng Hongzhong et al. (2013) also paid attention to MOOC's problems in quality assurance and evaluation mechanisms. MOOC's quality monitoring, course certification and credit recognition will affect the sustainable development of MOOC. Therefore, this part is an important part of future practitioners' exploration and will be an important topic of concern to researchers.
(V) MOOC's commercial operation model and market power With regard to MOOC's commercial operation model and market potential, relevant research is relatively rare. However, with the emergence of corporate elements in the development of MOOC, MOOC's commercial operation model and market potential will gradually become one of the focuses of MOOC builders. The discussion of related issues may not necessarily appear in a large number of academic research, but it will remain in the eyes of those who care about MOOC for a long time. From the perspective of Chinese, Li Qing et al. (2013) analyzed the operation modes of ten MOOCs, taking the four typical examples of Coursera, Udacity, EdX and P2PU as examples, from major partners, main activities, value propositions, customer relationships. , customer groups, core resources, channels, cost components, income sources, and detailed analysis of its operating model; Li Minghua (2013) explored the market potential and market segmentation of MOOC, and considered that the most promising is the foreign MOOC brand course (English version) ), and the Chinese-language version of this English version of MOOC will be attractive in the future.
Since 2012, MOOC has developed rapidly around the world and has received the public's unimagined attention, which is of course beneficial to the continued development of MOOC. However, after too much attention, it is also easy to be too fanatical and lack of calm, practical practice and rational, deep thinking. Domestic academic seminars on various levels of MOOC have proved that MOOC has received great attention in China. However, the number of academic articles published in Chinese core journals in recent years indicates that domestic research results have not grown. In the process of analyzing MOOC related practices and academics, the authors believe that the future hotspots of MOOC related practices and research will appear in the following aspects. These research and practice hotspots stem from the needs of MOOC sustainable development and the problems at the current stage. The process of solving problems will also promote the sustainable development of MOOC.
(2) There is no doubt that the research on the quality, completion rate and evaluation of learning in MOOC can only have better development prospects for courses/learning projects that can make learners really have something to gain. To ensure the quality of learning and the integrity of the learning process (high completion rate), MOOC teachers, curriculum platforms and learners themselves have different requirements. How to improve the quality of learning under the premise of hyperscale, how to evaluate the quality of learning, and how to determine the status of learning completion rate in learning evaluation will be a common concern of practitioners and researchers.
(2012) and other scholars believe that the biggest problem facing MOOC is acceptance. They believe that there is currently no official certification for MOOC. American CouncilonEducation is making an attempt in this regard, but it also needs a larger, global organization that spans more countries to start this matter, and also needs to establish a suitable National standards to judge MOOC. Indeed, early MOOCs did not have "certification"
This is the case, but given the future development, effective, high-quality certification may be an important guarantee for MOOC to be more widely accepted and sustainable. MOOC's ultra-large scale and openness have brought a lot of trouble to certification. How to scientifically and rationally design the MOOC certification mechanism not only ensures the quality of operation and management and the effectiveness of certification, but also does not bring too much extra cost. This is what all people who are concerned about and promote MOOC need to explore.
Due to the large scale of MOOC and the relative looseness of the organization, the operation and management of MOOCs have encountered challenges that other learning models have not encountered. The original MOOC was highly regarded by its size rather than the quality of learners' participation in learning. With the development of MOOC, learners' requirements for courses are increasing, and MOOC providers are beginning to pay more attention to cost issues and begin to pay attention to the efficiency of MOOC operations and the quality of course management. Correspondingly, the research on the mode and efficiency of MOOC operation and management will become one of the research hotspots in the future.
It is also because of the public's earnest concern that the discussion and practice of the MOOC profit model has also progressed. From a practical point of view, corporate involvement (such as Google, Blackboard, etc.) is a hot spot in the development of MOOC in recent years. Enterprises have a keen sense of the commercial possibilities of MOOC, provide a technology platform for MOOC, and promote the exploration of MOOC profit model, etc., which is expected to open up new development prospects for MOOC, which in turn affects MOOC-related research.
But whether MOOC should be profitable, how to make a profit, how to maintain its non-utilitarian nature as a learning model, and how the relationship between profit and sustainable development is worth considering. From the point of view, foreign educational institutions have begun to pay attention to the cost of MOOC, but no systematic research on the cost of MOOC has been seen in China.
Research on the MOOC profit model is almost blank at home and abroad.
In theory, the super-large and open nature of MOOC seems to mean that everyone is equal before MOOC. â€œBut scholars have noticed (2012) that MOOC actually requires learners' learning ability, and learners who lack self-learning ability. In addition, there are difficulties in MOOC. In addition, learners who choose MOOC in reality may face three difficulties. Platform barriers. The platform commonly used by MOOC has been introduced. The addition of large enterprises makes these platforms tend to Standardization, each platform is trying to make itself an "industry standard." This aspect is conducive to the development of MOOC, and it is also convenient for learners to switch between different courses on the same platform, but also to unfamiliar platforms or because of the network, etc. The reason is that the learners who cannot access the platform have brought difficulties. The openness of the MOOC has also been affected. Second, the digital divide. The MOOC based entirely on the Internet requires learners to have relatively smooth network conditions and more flexible networking devices. (such as smart phones, tablets, etc. that support flexible learning, mobile learning, etc.) These requirements also allow the network and designå¤‡æ¡ä»¶æ¬ ç¼ºçš„å¦ä¹ è€…éš¾ä»¥é¡ºåˆ©è¿›å…¥MOOCä¸–ç•Œã€‚â€æ•°å—é¸¿æ²Ÿâ€œå¯èƒ½æ˜¯æ’åœ¨çš„å°´å°¬ã€‚å…¶ä¸‰ï¼Œè¯è¨€é¸¿æ²Ÿã€‚å¤§é‡çš„MOOCåŠå…¶å¹³å°éƒ½é‡‡ç”¨è‹±è¯ä½œä¸ºç¬¬ä¸€è¯è¨€ï¼Œè¿™ç»™æ¯è¯éžè‹±è¯çš„å¦ä¹ è€…å¸¦æ¥äº†è¯è¨€ä¸Šçš„å›°éš¾ï¼Œä»–ä»¬çš„å¦ä¹ æ•ˆçŽ‡è‡ªç„¶å—åˆ°äº†é™åˆ¶ã€‚ä¸ºäº†çœŸæ£å®žçŽ°â€äººäººå¹³ç‰â€œçš„ç¾Žå¥½æ„¿æ™¯ï¼Œç ”ç©¶è€…ä»¬è¿˜éœ€è¦è·Ÿå®žè·µè€…ä¸€èµ·å¼€å±•æ›´æ·±å…¥çš„æ€è€ƒä¸ŽæŽ¢ç´¢ã€‚
æœ¬ç ”ç©¶äº¦æœ‰ä¸è¶³ä¹‹å¤„ã€‚å’Œå…¶ä»–å¯¹çš„ç»¼è¿°ä¸åŒçš„æ˜¯ï¼Œå¯¹MOOCçš„ç»¼è¿°ä¸èƒ½ä»…ä»…å±€é™äºŽå¦æœ¯ã€‚çº¸è´¨å’Œç”µååª’ä½“çš„æ–°é—»æŠ¥é“ï¼Œä»¥åŠä»¥å¾€æ˜¾å¾—é‚£ä¹ˆéžæ£å¼çš„å¾®åšã€åšå®¢ç‰ç‰ï¼Œéƒ½åœ¨å‘å‡ºå„ç§å…³äºŽMOOCçš„å£°éŸ³ã€‚ç”±äºŽæ—¶é—´æœ‰é™ï¼Œæ²¡èƒ½å¯¹æ¤ç±»èµ„æºåšæ·±åº¦æ¢³ç†ã€‚æ¤å¤–ï¼Œè¦æƒ³æ·±å…¥å‰–æžå›½å†…MOOCç›¸å…³ç ”ç©¶çš„ç‰¹ç‚¹ï¼Œä¹Ÿéœ€è¦åˆ†æžä¹‹å¤–çš„å…¶ä»–ç ”ç©¶æ–¹æ³•ã€‚
æœªæ¥ï¼Œè‹¥è¦æ›´è¿›ä¸€æ¥æ¢³ç†æˆ‘å›½MOOCç›¸å…³å®žè·µå’Œç ”ç©¶çš„çŠ¶å†µï¼Œè¿˜éœ€è¦åœ¨æ‰©å¤§æ¥æºå’Œå¢žåŠ ç ”ç©¶æ–¹æ³•è¿™ä¸¤æ–¹é¢ä¸‹å·¥å¤«ã€‚
ä¾¯å‹‡ï¼Œå¾å®ˆå°”æ–¯æ‹‰æœ¨ï¼Œåå°”æ ¹ä¼Šå¸ƒæ‹‰éŸ³ï¼Œå‘¨è‰³æ…§ï¼Œå¼ å‡¯ã€‚å¤§è§„æ¨¡åœ¨çº¿è¯¾ç¨‹éžä¸“ç”¨èµ„æºé¢„æµ‹ä¸ŽæŸ¥è¯¢è°ƒåº¦ã€‚è®¡ç®—æœºå·¥ç¨‹ä¸Žåº”ç”¨ï¼Œ2009ï¼Œï¼ˆ36ï¼‰ã€‚
åˆ˜ç¦¹ï¼Œé™ˆçŽ²ã€‚åŸºäºŽç½‘ç»œçš„å¤§è§„æ¨¡åä½œå¦ä¹ ç ”ç©¶ã€‚è¿œç¨‹æ•™è‚²æ‚å¿—ï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ2ï¼‰ã€‚
æŽåŽï¼Œé¾šè‰ºï¼Œçºªå¨Ÿï¼Œè°æ˜Žæ°ï¼Œæ–¹ä½³æ˜Žã€‚é¢å‘MOOCçš„å¦ä¹ ç®¡ç†ç³»ç»Ÿæ¡†æž¶è®¾è®¡ã€‚çŽ°ä»£è¿œç¨‹æ•™è‚²ç ”ç©¶ï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ3ï¼‰ã€‚
å´æ·‘è‹¹ã€‚MOOCè¯¾ç¨‹æ¨¡å¼ä¸‹äº‘å¦ä¹ çŽ¯å¢ƒç ”ç©¶ã€‚è½¯ä»¶å¯¼åˆŠï¼Œ2013ï¼Œï¼ˆ3ï¼‰ã€‚
å¼ æŒ¯è™¹ï¼Œåˆ˜æ–‡ï¼ŒéŸ©æ™ºã€‚ä»ŽOCWè¯¾å ‚åˆ°MOOCå¦å ‚ï¼šå¦ä¹ æœ¬æºçš„å›žå½’ã€‚çŽ°ä»£è¿œç¨‹æ•™è‚²ç ”ç©¶ï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ3ï¼‰ã€‚
æŽæ˜ŽåŽã€‚MOOCsé©å‘½ï¼šç‹¬ç«‹è¯¾ç¨‹å¸‚åœºå½¢æˆå’Œé«˜ç‰æ•™è‚²ä¸–ç•Œå¸‚åœºæ–°æ ¼å±€ã€‚å¼€æ”¾æ•™è‚²ç ”ç©¶ï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ3ï¼‰ã€‚
çŽ‹é¢–ï¼Œå¼ é‡‘ç£Šï¼Œå¼ å®è¾‰ã€‚å¤§è§„æ¨¡ç½‘ç»œå¼€æ”¾è¯¾ç¨‹ï¼ˆMOOCï¼‰å…¸åž‹é¡¹ç›®ç‰¹å¾åˆ†æžåŠå¯ç¤ºã€‚è¿œç¨‹æ•™è‚²æ‚å¿—ï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ4ï¼‰ã€‚
æŽé’ï¼Œä¾¯å¿ éœžï¼ŒçŽ‹æ¶›ã€‚å¤§è§„æ¨¡å¼€æ”¾è¯¾ç¨‹ç½‘ç«™çš„å•†ä¸šæ¨¡å¼åˆ†æžã€‚å¼€æ”¾æ•™è‚²ç ”ç©¶ï¼Œ2013ï¼ŒåˆŠæœŸå¾…å®šã€‚
æ½˜é›ªå³°ï¼Œå¼ å®‡æ™´ï¼Œæ¯›æ•ï¼Œå´”é¹¤ã€‚åœ¨çº¿æ•™è‚²äº§ä¸šå‘å±•çŽ°çŠ¶åŠäº§å“è®¾è®¡ç ”ç©¶ã€‚ç§‘æŠ€å’Œäº§ä¸šï¼Œ2013ï¼Œï¼ˆ8ï¼‰ã€‚
é‚“æ™–ã€‚å¤§è§„æ¨¡åœ¨çº¿å¼€æ”¾è¯¾ç¨‹æ±¹æ¶Œæ¥è¢ä¸€ä¸€åœ¨çº¿å¤§å¦ï¼šæ´ªæ°´çŒ›å…½è¿˜æ˜¯â€œæµŽä¸–ä»™ä¸¹â€ã€‚å…‰æ˜Žæ—¥æŠ¥ï¼Œ2013-6-5.èµµæ™“éœžã€‚MOOCå†²å‡»ä¼ ç»Ÿé«˜ç‰æ•™è‚²æ¨¡å¼ã€‚äººæ°‘æ—¥æŠ¥æµ·å¤–ç‰ˆï¼Œ2013 MOOCã€ç½‘ä¸Šå¤§å¦ç‰ä¼šä½¿å¤§å¦æ¶ˆäº¡å—ï¼Œã€‚åŒ—äº¬æ•™è‚²ï¼Œ2013ï¼Œï¼ˆ6ï¼‰ã€‚
MOOCå¤§è§„æ¨¡å¼€æ”¾ç½‘ç»œè¯¾ç¨‹ã€‚ç”µè„‘è¿·ã€‚2013-7-1.å§œæ¾Žã€‚C9é«˜æ ¡å°†å…±äº«åœ¨çº¿å¼€æ”¾è¯¾ç¨‹æŽ¢ç´¢è·¨æ ¡è”åˆè¾…ä¿®ä¸“ä¸šåŸ¹å…»æ¨¡å¼ã€‚æ–‡æ±‡æŠ¥ï¼Œ2013-7-10.æ²ˆæ•ã€‚â€œå¼€æ”¾åœ¨çº¿è¯¾ç¨‹â€æ£åœ¨çŒ›çƒˆå†²å‡»ä¼ ç»Ÿå¤§å¦ã€‚æ–°åŽæ¯æ—¥ç”µè®¯ï¼Œ2013æ²ˆæ•ã€‚â€œåœ¨çº¿â€æ•™è‚²æ”¹å˜å¤§å¦ã€‚ç»æµŽæŠ¥ã€‚2013-7-26.åœ¨çº¿æ•™è‚²é¢é¢è°ˆã€‚ä¸å›½æ•™è‚²ç½‘ç»œï¼Œ2013ï¼ˆ8ï¼‰é»„æŸé›ªã€‚ä¸è¦è¿‡åˆ†ä¾èµ–åœ¨çº¿æ•™è‚²ã€‚è®¡ç®—æœºä¸–ç•Œï¼Œ2013-8-26.é«˜æ¨ã€‚MOOCå¼€å¯äº’è”ç½‘æ—¶ä»£åœ¨çº¿æ•™è‚²æ–°æ¨¡å¼ã€‚ç½‘ç»œä¸–ç•Œï¼Œ2013-9-16.é‚“æ™–ã€‚â€œé¢å¯¹MOOCï¼Œä¸å›½å¤§å¦ä¸€è¦å¤§èƒ†ï¼ŒäºŒè¦åˆ›æ–°â€ä¸“è®¿edXä¸»å¸é˜¿å—ç‰¹ã€‚é˜¿åŠ ç“¦å°”æ•™æŽˆã€‚å…‰æ˜Žæ—¥æŠ¥ï¼Œ2013-10-11.æž—èŽ‰å›ã€‚å…¨çƒé¦–ä¸ªä¸æ–‡ç‰ˆâ€œæ…•è¯¾â€å¹³å°å¼€æ”¾åœ¨çº¿è¯¾ç¨‹ã€‚ç§‘æŠ€æ—¥æŠ¥ï¼Œ2013-10-15.è´£ä»»ç¼–è¾‘æ± å¡˜
Also Could Supply Excavator Cabin Assy for Komatsu, Hitachi, Hyundai, Kobelco, Doosan Daewoo, Caterpillar Sany and So on.
Primary Competitive Advantages:
Cabin Parts,Cabin Air Filter,Cabin Filter,Fresh Air Filter
Jining Tongderui Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. , https://www.tdr-excavatorparts.com